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7.0 Winterlined and Freeze Proof Clothing For outdoor physical works at low temperatures specially lined garments are available. The outer shell consists of a water- resistant material, mostly nylon, which is wind-proof; the inner padded lining seals in body warmth and locks out cold. In recent years inner linings made of Thinsulate® insulation have become popular. The unique microfiber or fine fibers that make up Thinsulate insulation work by trapping air molecules between the wearer and the outside. The more air a material traps in a given space, the better it insulates from the cold outside air. Because the fibers in Thinsulate insulation are finer than the fibers used in most other synthetic or natural insulation, they trap more air in less space. These winterlined work clothes are available in various styles and are mainly used at construction sites, for road construction and for repair and installation works. Special fabrics such as Gore-Tex, Antron, Versa-Tech or Supplex apply perfectly for the requirements of winterlined clothing. We feature these in our special jacket programme. Freeze proof clothing is styled for applications in cold storage houses and in chemical industries. It enables continuous work over several hours at temperatures down to -35°C, by special linings and double- impregnation. We offer a complete range of freeze proof clothes together with hoods, gauntlets, boots and underwear for these special applications. Materials Work suits can be manufactured either of natural fibres or man- made fibres. Natural fibres may be cotton, wood or protein, man-made fibres may be either cellulose fibres (e.g. acetate fibres) or synthetic fibres (e.g. polyamide fibres, such as perlon, nylon or polyester fibres, such as Trevira or Diolen). Both natural and man-made fibres can be fabricated pure or as blends. The tissues may consist either of natural and man- made fibres or of mixtures of both types of fibres with certain industrially manufactured inorganic fabrics, e.g. glass cloth or metallic tissues. The ratio of components can be 50/50, 60/40, 65/35, 70/30, 75/25 or up to 98/2 % in order to offer best resistance against the specific hazards. Also blends of three components are possible. For work clothes usually a polycotton blend in either 65/35 or 50/50 ratio is used, or 100 % cotton. In recent years the amount of cotton in polycotton blends has been raised which increases the wearing comfort of the garments. We offer a very popular blend of 60 % cotton and 40 % polyester. Polycotton does not shrink when laundered and also does not require pressing. The higher the percentage of polyester the better these goals will be achieved. 100 % cotton in turn is more comfortable than polyester and it soaks body perspiration better. Therefore it is mainly used for summer outdoor works in hot climates. 100 % cotton does shrink when laundered and it requires mending too. Also, the colour fades more easily than with synthetic fibres. To choose the appropriate material for your workers we advise to take a polyester-cotton blend for winter outdoor works and 100 % cotton for summertime applications. In the warmer season a lighter fabric i.e. 5 oz/yd2 (170 g/m²) is fully sufficient, whereas in the colder season heavier fabrics should be worn i.e. 7,5 oz/yd2 (254 g/m²). For comfort, cotton shirts are mainly manufactured of a poplin weave, whereas pants, jackets, jumpsuits and coveralls are made of a twill weave which is generally stronger. In case a polycotton blend is chosen you can increase the wearing-comfort if you increase the amount of cotton in the blend (i.e. 50/50 or 40/60 instead of 65/35). Woven Fabrics Woven fabrics are made up of a weft - the yarn going across the width of the fabric - and a warp - the yarn going down the length of the loom. The side of the fabric where the wefts are double-backed to form a non-fraying edge is called the selvedge. Plain-weave Fabric (Poplin) In poplin-weave fabric the warp and weft are aligned so that they form a simple criss- cross pattern with a smooth surface. Poplin-weave is strong and hardwearing. In workwear, poplin weave is mainly used for shirts. Twill-weave Fabric In twill-weave fabric the crossings of weft and warp are offset to give a diagonal pattern on the fabric surface. It‘s strong, drapes well and is used in workwear like jackets, trousers, coveralls and jumpsuits. Oxford-weave Fabric This is a type of woven dress shirt fabric, employed to make a particular casual-to-formal cloth in Oxford shirts. It has a basketweave structure and a lustrous aspect makes it popular for dress shirts. Satin-weave Fabric These are more advanced weaves mainly used in fashion industry. Selvedge Weft Warp 102

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